Learning Modern 3D Graphics Programming

Jason L. McKesson


Table of Contents

About this Book
Why Read This Book?
What You Need
Organization of This Book
Conventions used in This Book
Building the Tutorials
I. The Basics
Introduction
1. Hello, Triangle!
2. Playing with Colors
II. Positioning
3. OpenGL's Moving Triangle
4. Objects at Rest
5. Objects in Depth
6. Objects in Motion
7. World in Motion
8. Getting Oriented
III. Illumination
9. Lights On
10. Plane Lights
11. Shinies
12. Dynamic Range
13. Lies and Impostors
IV. Texturing
14. Textures are not Pictures
15. Many Images
16. Gamma and Textures
17. Spotlight on Textures
V. Framebuffer
VI. Advanced Lighting
A. Basic Optimization
Vertex Format
Textures
Object Optimizations
Finding the Bottleneck
Vertex Format
Vertex Caching
Shaders and Performance
Synchronization
B. Further Study
Debugging
Topics of Interest
C. History of PC Graphics Hardware
Voodoo Magic
Dynamite Combiners
Vertices and Registers
Programming at Last
Dependency
Modern Unification
D. Getting Started with OpenGL
Manual Usage

List of Figures

1. Position Vectors
2. Direction Vectors
3. Vector Addition
4. Vector Addition Head-to-Tail
5. Vector Negation
6. Vector Subtraction
7. Vector Scaling
8. An Image
9. Normalized Device Coordinate Space
10. Scan Converted Triangle
11. Shared Edge Scan Conversion
1.1. Data Flow to Vertex Shader
1.2. Data Flow to Rasterizer
2.1. Fragment Position
2.2. Vertex Array Memory Map
2.3. Multiple Vertex Attributes
2.4. Interpolated Vertex Colors
4.1. Triangle Winding Order
4.2. Orthographic Prism
4.3. 2D to 1D Orthographic Projection
4.4. 2D to 1D Perspective Projection
4.5. Viewing Frustum
4.6. 2D to 1D Perspective Projection Diagram
4.7. Camera to NDC Transformation in 2D
4.8. Perspective Prism
4.9. Perspective Matrix
4.10. Bad Aspect Ratio
4.11. Widescreen Aspect Ratio Frustum
5.1. Overlapping Objects
5.2. Three Overlapping Triangles
5.3. Depth Buffering
5.4. Mild Overlap
5.5. Major Overlap
5.6. Triangle Clipping
5.7. Near Plane Clipping
5.8. Depth Clamping
5.9. Depth Clamp With Overlap
6.1. Two 2D Coordinate Systems
6.2. Coordinate System Translation in 2D
6.3. Translation Project
6.4. Coordinate System Scaling in 2D
6.5. Scale Project
6.6. Coordinate Rotation in 2D
6.7. Rotation Project
6.8. Transform Order Diagram
6.9. Hierarchy Project
7.1. Full Vertex Transformation Pipeline
7.2. World Space Scene
7.3. Spherical Coordinates
7.4. Triangle Fan
7.5. Triangle Strip
7.6. Triangle Strips with Winding Order
7.7. Uniform Buffer and Block Binding Points
8.1. Gimbal Lock Project
8.2. Parallel Gimbals
8.3. Quaternion YPR Project
8.4. Camera Relative Project
8.5. Interpolation Directions
9.1. Surface Light Absorption
9.2. Perpendicular Light
9.3. Light at an Angle
9.4. Diffuse Reflectance
9.5. Near and Far Lights
9.6. Basic Lighting
9.7. Circle Scaling
9.8. Circle Scaling with Normals
9.9. Lighting and Scale
9.10. Half Lit
9.11. Ambient Lighting
9.12. Cube Position Topology
9.13. Cube Normal Topology
9.14. Full Cube Topology
10.1. Vertex Point Lighting
10.2. Light Near Surface
10.3. Triangle Interpolation
10.4. Triangle Edge Interpolation
10.5. Two Triangle Quadrilateral
10.6. Two Triangle Interpolation
10.7. Fragment Point Lighting
10.8. Close Lit Cylinder
10.9. Adjacent Gradient
10.10. Gradient Intensity Plot
10.11. High Light
10.12. Fragment Attenuation
11.1. Perfect Specular Reflection
11.2. Smooth and Rough Microfacets
11.3. Phong Lighting
11.4. Phong with Dark Diffuse
11.5. Phong Clipping
11.6. Phong Distortion
11.7. Large View and Reflect Angle
11.8. Geometric Half-Angle Vector
11.9. Perfect Reflection Half-Angle Vector
11.10. Blinn Lighting
11.11. Blinn vs. Phong Lighting
11.12. Light Edge
11.13. Improved Light Edge
11.14. Gaussian Probability Distribution Curves
11.15. Gaussian with Sharp Highlight
12.1. Scene Lighting
12.2. Darkness, Day vs. Night
12.3. Light Clipping
12.4. HDR Lighting
12.5. Gamma Function Graph
12.6. Gamma Correction
12.7. Gamma Lighting
12.8. Gamma Shadow Details
13.1. Basic Impostor
13.2. Circle Point Computation
13.3. Bad Impostor
13.4. Circle Projection
13.5. Bad vs. Good
13.6. Bad Intersection
13.7. Depth Correct Impostor
14.1. Basic Texture
14.2. Texture Binding and Context
14.3. Sampler Binding and Context
14.4. Projection and Interpolation
14.5. Perspective Correct Interpolation
14.6. Material Texture
14.7. A Torus
14.8. Surface smudges
15.1. Basic Checkerboard Plane
15.2. Jagged Texture Edge
15.3. Nearest Sampling
15.4. Linear Filtering
15.5. Large Minification Sampling
15.6. Mipmapped Minification Sampling
15.7. Hallway with Mipmapping
15.8. Hallway with Special Texture
15.9. Linear Mipmap Linear Comparison
15.10. Main Diagonal
15.11. Long Fragment Area
15.12. Long Fragment with Sample Area
15.13. Parallelogram Sample Area
15.14. Anisotropic Filtering
15.15. Max Anisotropic Filtering
16.1. Gamma Ramp
16.2. Gamma Ramp with sRGB Images
16.3. Gamma Checkers
16.4. Gamma Correct with Gamma Mipmaps
16.5. Gamma Landscape
17.1. Double Projection
17.2. Top View Projection
17.3. Near View Projection
17.4. Projected Light
17.5. Back Projected Light
17.6. Colored Spotlight
17.7. Edge Clamped Light
17.8. Border Clamped Light
17.9. Cube Map Face Orientation
17.10. Cube Point Light

List of Tables

6.1. Hierarchy Tutorial Key Commands
7.1. World Space Controls
10.1. Transform Legend
12.1. Scene Lighting Values
13.1. Sphere Impostor Control Key Map

List of Examples

1.1. The display Function
1.2. Buffer Object Initialization
1.3. Vertex Shader
1.4. Reshaping Window
1.5. Fragment Shader
1.6. Program Initialization
1.7. Shader Creation
1.8. Program Creation
2.1. FragPosition's Fragment Shader
2.2. New Vertex Array Data
2.3. Buffer Object Initialization
2.4. Rendering the Scene
2.5. Vertex Arrays
2.6. Draw Arrays Implementation
2.7. Multi-input Vertex Shader
2.8. Fragment Shader with Input
3.1. Computation of Position Offsets
3.2. Adjusting the Vertex Data
3.3. Updating and Drawing the Vertex Data
3.4. Offsetting Vertex Shader
3.5. Draw with Calculated Offsets
3.6. Offset Computing Vertex Shader
3.7. Rendering with Time
3.8. Loop Duration Setting
3.9. Time-based Fragment Shader
3.10. More Shader Creation
4.1. Face Culling Initialization
4.2. ManualPerspective Vertex Shader
4.3. Program Initialization
4.4. MatrixPerspective Vertex Shader
4.5. Program Initialization of Perspective Matrix
4.6. Square-only Viewport
4.7. Reshape with Aspect Ratio
5.1. Draw Arrays Implementation
5.2. Draw Elements Implementation
5.3. VAO Initialization
5.4. VAO and Indexed Rendering Code
5.5. Vertex Attribute Data Abridged
5.6. Array Drawing of Two Objects with One VAO
5.7. MultiObject Element Buffer
5.8. Base Vertex Single VAO
5.9. Base Vertex Rendering
5.10. Depth Buffer Setup
5.11. Depth Buffer Clearing
5.12. Depth Clamping On/Off
6.1. Translation Shader Initialization
6.2. Frustum Scale Computation
6.3. Translation Matrix Generation
6.4. Rotation Transformation Building
6.5. Hierarchy::Draw
7.1. Window Resizing
7.2. Position-only Vertex Shader
7.3. Upload World to Camera Matrix
7.4. Spherical to Euclidean Transform
7.5. Draw the Ground
7.6. DrawForest Function
7.7. Call to DrawParthenon
7.8. Draw Camera Target
7.9. Cylinder Mesh File
7.10. UBO-based Vertex Shader
7.11. Uniform Buffer Creation
7.12. UBO-based Perspective Matrix
7.13. UBO-based Camera Matrix
7.14. Viewing Point with UBO
8.1. Gimbal Lock Display Code
8.2. Quaternion YPR Display
8.3. OffsetOrientation Function
8.4. Camera Relative OffsetOrientation
8.5. Quaternion Linear Interpolation
8.6. Spherical Linear Interpolation
9.1. Display Camera Code
9.2. Ground Plane Lighting
9.3. Cylinder Lighting
9.4. Lighting Vertex Shader
9.5. Lighting with Proper Normal Transform
9.6. Ambient Vertex Lighting
9.7. Lighting Intensity Settings
10.1. Per-Vertex Point Light Rendering
10.2. Per-Vertex Point Light Vertex Shader
10.3. Initial Per-Fragment Rendering
10.4. Ground Plane Per-Fragment Rendering
10.5. Model Space Per-Vertex Lighting Vertex Shader
10.6. Model Space Per-Fragment Lighting Vertex Shader
10.7. Per-Fragment Lighting Fragment Shader
10.8. Light Attenuation Fragment Shader Definitions
10.9. Window to Camera Space Function
10.10. Light Intensity Application Function
10.11. Main Light Attenuation
11.1. Phong Lighting Shader
11.2. Blinn-Phong Lighting Shader
11.3. Gaussian Lighting Shader
12.1. Material Uniform Block
12.2. Material UBO Construction
12.3. Daytime Lighting
12.4. Light Uniform Block
12.5. Many Lights Main Function
12.6. HDR LightBlock
12.7. Gamma LightBlock
12.8. Fragment Gamma Correction
13.1. Basic Impostor Vertex Shader
13.2. Basic Impostor Fragment Shader
13.3. Ray Traced Impostor Square
13.4. Depth Correct Fragment Shader
13.5. Impostor Geometry Creation
13.6. Vertex Shader for Points
13.7. Geometry Shader Definitions
13.8. Geometry Shader Vertex Computation
13.9. Fragment Shader Changes
14.1. BuildGaussianData function
14.2. CreateGaussianTexture function
14.3. Shader Texture Access
14.4. Sampler Object Creation
14.5. BuildGaussianData in 2D
14.6. CreateGaussianTexture in 2D
14.7. CreateShininessTexture function
14.8. Shininess Texture Access
14.9. Gaussian Texture with Specular
15.1. DDS Texture Loading with Mipmaps
15.2. Special Texture Data
16.1. sRGB Image Format
16.2. Window to Clip Matrix Computation
16.3. Vertex Format
16.4. Gamma Landscape defaults Function
16.5. Enable sRGB Conversion
17.1. Scene Graph Shader Definition
17.2. Scene Graph Node Definition
17.3. Double Projection LoadAndSetupScene
17.4. Left Projection Matrix
17.5. Right Projection Matrix
17.6. View Camera to Projected Texture Transform
17.7. Border Clamp Sampler Objects
17.8. Cube Texture Loading
17.9. View Camera to Light Cube Texture

List of Equations

1. Vector Addition with Numbers
2. Vector Negation
3. Vector Multiplication
4. Vector-Scalar Multiplication
5. Vector-Scalar Addition
6. Vector Algebra
7. Vector Length
8. Vector Normalization
4.1. Perspective Computation
4.2. Depth Computation
4.3. Camera to Clip Equations
4.4. Camera to Clip Expanded Equations
4.5. Camera to Clip Matrix Transformation
4.6. Vector Matrix Multiplication
5.1. Perspective Computation
6.1. Coordinate System
6.2. Identity Matrix
6.3. Translation Matrix
6.4. Scaling Transformation Matrix
6.5. Vectorized Matrix Multiplication
6.6. Axial Rotation Matrices
6.7. Angle/Axis Rotation Matrix
6.8. Order of Transformation
8.1. Angle/Axis to Quaternion
8.2. Quaternion Multiplication
8.3. Quaternion to Matrix
9.1. Diffuse Lighting Equation
9.2. Dot Product
9.3. Dot Product from Vector Math
9.4. Matrix Transpose
10.1. Physical Light Attenuation
10.2. Light Attenuation Inverse
10.3. Camera to Window Transforms
10.4. Window to Camera Transforms
11.1. Phong Specular Term
11.2. Vector Reflection
11.3. Half-Angle Vector
11.4. Blinn Specular Term
11.5. Gaussian Distribution Function
11.6. Gaussian Specular Term
12.1. Display Gamma Function
12.2. Gamma Correction Function
13.1. Ray Equation
13.2. Sphere Equation
14.1. Gaussian as Function of One Variable
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